Main Article Content


This research aims toto reveal the influence of service quality consisting of tangible, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, and assurance on the positive emotions of RSUD patientsX Solo Cityand its influence on satisfaction. The problem formulation in this research is related to the gap that will be discussed in this research. The gaps that will be discussed in this research relate to theoretical gaps, empirical gaps, and method gaps. The theoretical gap in this research is related to the basic theory that will be used in this research, namely service quality theory, emotion theory, and customer satisfaction theory. This research involved 300 respondents who were former Covid-19 patients who had been treated at referral hospitals in the cities of Semarang and Solo. Data collection uses a questionnaire with a survey method. The data analysis technique uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the help of the SMART PLS 3 application. The results of this study show that all dimensions of RSUD service quality have a positive and significant effect on patient emotions, and patient emotions have a positive effect on satisfaction. The limitations of this research are related to the scope of respondents and areas used as well as the variables contained in this research model.


Service Quality Positive Emotions Satisfaction SEM

Article Details

How to Cite
Patiro, S. P. S., Hendrian, H., Damayanty, P., Kurniawan, R., & Sasmita, S. A. (2023). Quality of Services at RSUD X, Emotions and Satisfaction of Covid-19 Patients. Kontigensi : Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen, 11(2), 556-576.


  1. Aaker, D.A., Stayman, D.M. and Hagerty, M.R. (1986). Warmth in advertising – measurement, impact, and sequence effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(4), 365-81.
  2. Al-Shdaifat, EA (2015). Implementation of total quality management in hospitals. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 10(4), 461-466
  3. Arasli, H. and Ahmadeva, L. (2004) “No more tears!” A local TQM formula for health promotion. International Journal of Health Care and Quality Assurance, 7(3), 135-145.
  4. Arnould, EJ and Price, LL (1993) River magic: extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(1), 24-45.
  5. Ashforth, B.E. and Humphrey, R.H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: the influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.
  6. Babin, B.J., Yong-Ki, L., Eun-Ju, K. and Griffin, M. (2005). Modeling consumer satisfaction and word-of-mouth: restaurant patronage in Korea. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(3), 133-139.
  7. Bagozzi, R.P., Gopinath, M. and Nyer, P.U. (1999). The role of emotions in marketing. Academy of Marketing Science, 27(2), 184-206.
  8. Barsade, S. G. (2002). The ripple effect: emotional contagion and its influence on groups
  9. Behaviour. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47(4), 644-675.
  10. Baron, R. A. (1987). Interviewers' moods and reactions to job applicants: the influence of
  11. affective states on applied social judgments. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17(10), 911-926.
  12. Baumgartner, H. and Homburg, C. (1996). Application of Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing and Consumer Research. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13, 139-161.
  13. Biscaia, R., Correia, A., Rosado, A., Marôco, J., & Ross, S. (2012). The effects of emotions on football spectator's satisfaction and behavioral intentions. European Sport Management Quarterly, 12, 227-242.
  14. Bradburn, N.M. (1969), The Structure of Psychological Wellbeing, Aldine, Chicago, IL.
  15. Brown, C.S. and Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1994). An assessment of the relationship between customer satisfaction and service friendliness. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 14(2), 55-75.
  16. Chang, C.S., Chen, SY, and Lan, Y.T. (2013). Service quality, trust, and patient satisfaction in interpersonal-based medical service encounters. BMC Health Services Research, 13(22), 1-11.
  17. Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295-336.
  18. Chin, W. W. and Todd, P. A. (1995). On the Use, Usefulness, and Ease of Use of Structural Equation Modeling in MIS Research: A Note of Caution. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 237-246
  19. Chin, W.W.; Peterson, R.A.; and Brown, S.P. (2008). Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing: Some Practical Reminders. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(4), 287–298.
  20. Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000) Research Methods in Education. 5th Edition, London: Routledge Falmer
  21. Collier, JE and Bienstock, CC (2006) Measuring Service Quality in E-Retailing. Journal of Service Research, 8, 260-275
  22. Cooper, DR and Schindler, PS (2014), Business Research Methods, 12th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
  23. Cronin, J., and Taylor, S. (1992). Measuring service quality: a re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56, 55-68.
  24. Cronin, J. J., Brady, M., and Hult, G. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of Retailing, 76, 193-218
  25. Cui, X. and Lai, V.S. (2013). E-loyalty to online auction websites: a stimulus-organism-response model. PACIS Proceedings, p. 126.
  26. Dube´-Rioux, L. (1990). The power of affective reports in predicting satisfaction judgments”, Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 571-576.
  27. Dube´, L. and Menon, K. (2000). Multiple roles of consumption emotions in pot-purchase satisfaction with extended service transactions. International Journal of Service Industry, 11(3), 287-304.
  28. Dube´, L. and Morgan, M. S. (1998). Capturing the dynamics of in-process consumption emotions and satisfaction in extended service transactions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(4), 309-20.
  29. Dube´, L., Cervellon, M.-C. and Jingyuan, H. (2003). Should consumer attitudes be reduced to their affective and cognitive bases? Validation of a hierarchical model. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(3), 259-72.
  30. Ferrand, A., and Vecchiatini, D. (2002). The effect of service performance and ski resort image on skiers' satisfaction. European Journal of Sport Science, 2, 1-17
  31. Fishbein, M.and Middlestadt, S. (1995). Non Cognitive Effects on Attitude Formation and Change: Fact or Artifact? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(2), 181-202.
  32. Folkes, V.S., Koletsky, S. and Graham, J.L. (1987). A field-study of causal inferences and consumer reactions – the view from the airport. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4), 534-539.
  33. Ford, W.S. (1995). Evaluation of the indirect influence of courteous service on customers
  34. discretionary behavior. Human Communication Research, 22(1), 65-89.
  35. Garson, GD (2016), Partial Least Squares: Regression and Structural equation Models, Statistical Associates Blue Book Series. Asheboro, USA:Statistical Publishing Associates
  36. George, J. M. (1991). State or trait: effects of positive mood on prosocial behaviors at work.
  37. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 299-307.
  38. Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: a new way to conceptualize
  39. emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110.
  40. Hair, JF, Black, WC; Babin, BJ; and Anderson, RE (2014), Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.
  41. Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T. and Rapson, R. L. (1992). Primitive emotional contagion. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 151-177.
  42. Hennig-Thurau, T., Groth, M., Paul, M. and Gremler, D.D. (2006). Are all smiles created equal? How emotional contagion and emotional labor affect service relationships. Journal of Marketing, 70(3), 58-73.
  43. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. University of California, Berkeley, CA.
  44. Howes, M.J., Hokanson, J.E. and Loewenstein, D.A. (1985). Induction of depressive affect after prolonged exposure to a mildly depressed individual. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(4), 1110-1113.
  45. Hui, M. K. and Tse, D. K. (1996). What to tell consumers in waiting of different lengths: an integrative model of service evaluation. Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 81-90.
  46. Jeong, SW, Fiore, AM, Niehm, LS and Lorenz, FO (2009), “The role of experiential value in online shopping. Internet Research, 19(1), 105-124.
  47. Jogiyanto, HM and Abdillah, W. (2009), Concept and Application of PLS (Partial Least Square) for Empirical Research. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
  48. Jones, M., and Suh, J. (2000). Transaction-specific satisfaction and overall satisfaction: an empirical analysis. Journal of Services Marketing, 14, 147-159
  49. Kang, J., Bagozzi, R., and Oh, J. (2011). Emotions an antecedents of participant sport consumption decisions: a model integrating emotive, self-based, and utilitarian evaluations. Journal of Sport Management, 7, 314-325.
  50. Kotler, P. and Keller, K. L. (2016). Marketing Management. 15th edition, Global Edition. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited
  51. Laros, F.J.M. and Steenkamp, J.-BEM (2005). Emotions in consumer behavior: a hierarchical
  52. Approach. Journal of Business Research, 58(10), 1437-1445.
  53. Laverie, D.A., Kleine, R.E. and Kleine, S.S. (1993). Linking emotions and values in consumption experiences – an exploratory study. Advances in Consumer Research, 20, 70-75.
  54. Liljander, V. and Strandvik, T. (1995). The nature of customer relationships in services”, in Swartz, TA, Bowen, DE and Brown, SW (Eds), Advances in Services Marketing and Management, Vol. 4, JAI Press Inc., London, pp. 141-68.
  55. MacKenzie, S.B., Podsakoff, P.M., and Jarvis, C.B. (2005). The Problem of Measurement Model Misspecification in Behavioral and Organizational Research and Some Recommended Solutions, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4): 710-730
  56. Mano, H. and Oliver, R.L. (1993). Assessing the dimensionality and structure of consumption experience: evaluation, feeling and satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 451-466.
  57. Martin, D., O´Neil, M., Hubbard, S., & Palmer, A. (2008). The role of emotion in explaining consumer satisfaction and future behavioral intention. Journal of Services Marketing, 22, 224-236.
  58. Morris, M. W. and Keltner, D. (2000). How Emotions Work: The Social Functions of Emotional Expressions in Negotiations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 1-50.
  59. Oliver, R.L. (1980). A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Dimensions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460-469.
  60. Oliver, R.L. (1993). Cognitive, Affective and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 418-430.
  61. Oliver, R.L. (1997). Satisfaction: a behavioral perspective on the consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill
  62. Oliver, R.L. and Westbrook, R.A. (1993). Profiles of Consumer Emotions and Satisfaction in Ownership and Usage. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 6, 12-27.
  63. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., and Berry, L. L. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. The Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.
  64. Parasuraman, A., Berry, L.L., and Zeithaml, V.A. (1991). Understanding Customer Expectations of Service. Sloan Management Review, 32(3), 39-48
  65. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., and Berry, L. L. (1994). Reassessment of Expectations as A Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Further Research. Journal of Marketing, 58, 111-124.
  66. Pedragosa, V., and Correia, A. (2009). Expectations, satisfaction and loyalty in health and fitness clubs. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 5, 450-464.
  67. Peng, C. and Kim, Y. G. (2014). Application of the stimuli-organism-response (SOR) framework to online shopping behavior. Journal of Internet Commerce, 13(3/4), 159-176.
  68. Price, L.L., Arnould, E.J. and Deibler, S.L. (1995). Consumers' emotional responses to service encounters. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(3), 34-63.
  69. Pugh, S. D. (2001). Service with a smile: emotional contagion in the service encounter. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5), 1018-1027.
  70. Rafaeli, A. and Sutton, R.I. (1989). The Expression of Emotion in Organizational Life. Research in Organizational Behavior, 11, 1-42.
  71. Richins, M. L. (1997). Measuring emotions in the consumption experience. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(2), pp. 127-46.
  72. Ruiz, D.M., Gremler, D.D., Washburn, J.H., and Carrion, G.C. (2010). Reframing Customer Value in a Service-Based Paradigm: An Evaluation of a Formative Measure in a Multi-industry, Cross-cultural Context, in Vinzi, VE, Chin, WW, Henseler, J., and Wang, H. Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods, and Applications, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag
  73. Russell, J. A. (1980). A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1161–1178.
  74. Samsudin (2011).Analysis of the Influence of Service Quality and Patient Emotions on Inpatient Satisfaction at Dr. Central General Hospital. Soeradji Tirtonegoro Klaten. Management & Accounting Research, 2(3), 56-83
  75. Sari, AFNP (2014). The Influence of Service Quality and Emotional Factors on Visitor Satisfaction at The Laguna A, Luxuary Collection Resort & Spa Nusa Dua 2014, Journal of Economic Education Undiksha, 4(1): 1-12
  76. Schiffman, L.G. and Wisenblit, J. (2015), Consumer Behavior, 11th ed. Global Edition, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
  77. Schlett, C. and Ziegler, R. (2014). Job Emotions and Job Cognitions as Determinants of Job Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Individual Differences in Need for Affect. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84, 74–89
  78. Schoenewolf, G. (1990). Emotional contagion: behavior induction in individuals and groups. Modern Psychoanalysis, 15(1), 49-61.
  79. Sinclair, R.C. and Mark, M.M. (1995). The effects of mood state on judgmental accuracy:
  80. processing strategy as a mechanism. Cognition and Emotion, 9(5), 417-438.
  81. Smith, C. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1990). Emotion and adaptation. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 609–637). The Guilford Press.
  82. Soderlund, M. and Rosengren, S. (2004), “Dismantling positive affect and its effects on customer satisfaction: an empirical examination of customer joy in a service encounter. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 17, 27-41.
  83. Solihin, M. and D. Ratmono. (2013), SEM-PLS Analysis with WarpPLS 3.0. first edition, Yogyakarta: ANDI Publishers
  84. Sutton, R.I. (1991). Maintaining norms about expressed emotions: the case of bill collectors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(2), 245-268.
  85. Taylor, S. A. and Cronin, J. Jr. (1994). Modeling patient satisfaction and service quality. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 14(1), 34-44.
  86. Tenenhaus, M., Vinzi, V.E., Chatelin, Y., and Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis,48,159 – 205
  87. Tsai, W. C. and Huang, Y. M. (2002). Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and
  88. customer behavioral intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 1001-1008.
  89. Vinagre, HMandNeves, J.(2008). The influence of service quality and patients' emotions on satisfaction.International Journal of Health Care and Quality Assurance, 21(1): 87-103.
  90. Vinagre, H.M. and Neves, J. (2010).Emotional predictors of consumer's satisfaction with healthcare public services. Satisfaction.International Journal of Health Care and Quality Assurance, 23(2): 209-227.